metabolism

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Avoiding the Fat Trap

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Gastric hormones are programmed to restore fat stores after weight loss. The appetite stimulating hormone ghrelin remains high after weight loss, while hunger suppressing hormones, peptide YY and leptin, remain low. Lower leptin levels also lower one’s metabolism. The end result is more hunger and a lower metabolism.

According this NY Times article,  this state of more hunger and lower metabolism lasts a long time. A quote:

“Preliminary research at Columbia suggests that for as many as six years after weight loss, the body continues to defend the old, higher weight by burning off far fewer calories than would be expected.”

Well, it’s no wonder; a study that examined 60 years of trials found the common dieting outcome is weight regain or trivial loss.

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Eggs can quell your appetite

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According to the Harvard School of Health:

“A solid body of research shows that for most people, cholesterol in food has a much smaller effect on blood levels of total cholesterol and harmful LDL cholesterol than does the mix of fats in the diet. Recent research has shown that moderate egg consumption—up to one a day—does not increase heart disease risk in healthy individuals.”

The key words there are "most people" and “healthy individuals” – no diabetes or history of heart disease.

When eating eggs I feel full longer.  I thought it was just me, but studies confirm that eggs will help to quell your appetite. The article, Is it OK to eat eggs every day?, addresses the myths regarding cholesterol and eggs and mentions two studies on eggs and satiation.

One study: “They also ate less at lunch and dinner after having the egg breakfast as opposed to the other breakfasts.”

The other study: “Eggs for lunch could increase satiety more than a carbohydrate meal and might even help reduce between-meal calorie intake.”

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Losing weight and keeping it off - what you are up against

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This New York Times article, The Fat Trap, explores how people lose weight, but almost without exception, gain it right back.

In one study, 50 obese men and women consumed just 500 to 550 calories a day for eight weeks and lost an average of 30 pounds. A year after the study, subjects had regained an average of 11  pounds and reported feeling far more hungry and preoccupied with food than before they lost the weight.

Yeah, I know the diet was too restrictive, but regardless, it is interesting to note what is going on hormonally. A quote from the article:

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Three different diets, equal in calories, three vastly different results

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This New York Times article, What Really Makes Us Fat, discusses the result of a study that produced surprising results.

The experiment: Three separate groups on three different diets stuck to a diet for a month. All subjects consumed the same amount of calories.

Diet 1: A high-carbohydrate low-fat diet - fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean sources of protein.

Diet 2: A low glycemic index diet - fewer carbohydrates in total - non-starchy vegetables, beans, and minimally processed sources.

Diet 3: The Atkins diet - high in fat and protein and very low in carbohydrates.

Results: The fewer carbohydrates consumed, the more energy was expended.

A quote from the article:

“On the very low-carbohydrate diet, subjects expended 300 more calories a day than they did on the low-fat diet and 150 calories more than on the low-glycemic-index diet.”

And another:

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Lowering metabolic syndrome risk factors, which type of exercise is most effective?

A study designed to test the efficacy of exercise in lowering metabolic risk factors consisted of three groups.  One group used a less-intense regimen called “moderate continuous-training” (CME). Another group did not exercise, and the third group used a high-intensity aerobic-interval training for four months.
From this article High-intensity exercise better at improving metabolic syndrome risk factors the results:

“• Short bursts of high-intensity exercise, rather than longer spells of moderate-intensity, exercise may improve the health of people with metabolic syndrome.

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Burn calories four ways with strength training

Strength training helps you burn calories four ways:

1. Calories burned after the exercise stops. Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC) occurs after the workout. After running your body replenishes sugar stores. Strength training produces a larger post-exercise calorie demand as the body replaces sugar and rebuilds muscle as a result of the micro-trauma that has been imposed on the muscles.

2. Added muscle burns additional calories. Muscle is metabolically expensive to maintain and will require calories 24/7.

3. The workout itself. All forms of exercise burn calories, but not really as much as people think. Those who exercise with lesser intensity will burn less calories that those who exercise with more intensity.

 

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Changing up your workouts

When the body is exposed to more of a stimulus that it is equipped to handle the body will makes a positive adaptation as a form of self-protection. That change will occur if the body has the capacity to change plus the needed time and resources to recover. The changes will continue to occur if the body is faced with new challenges.

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